Shoulder Replacement

Total or partial joint replacement with a prosthetic joint has become a more common treatment to relieve pain and restore independence. Most joint replacements are done for hips and knees, but shoulder replacement is becoming more and more popular as a remedy for arthritis and fractures of the shoulder. Shoulder replacement is recommended to repair painful arthritic shoulders and increase limited motion. The treatment can replace the head of the humerus or the entire shoulder joint.

The Shoulder Joint

The glenohumeral joint (shoulder joint) is a ball-and-socket joint, similar to the hip joint and is the most mobile joint in the body which also makes it unstable. The shoulder joint is made up of three bones:

  • the scapula, or the shoulder blade
  • the humerus, or the upper arm bone
  • the clavicle or the collarbone

The glenoid is the shallow, flat portion of the scapula that forms a small socket, called the glenoid fossa. Strong ligaments and muscles surround the glenoid. The head of the humerus is shaped like a ball, which fits into the glenoid socket and held in place by the rotator cuff muscles. The ball of the humerus is covered with a smooth, durable surface (articular cartilage) and a thin inner lining (synovium) which allows smooth motion of the glenohumeral joint. The joint capsule is a thin sheet of fibers that surrounds the shoulder joint and helps keep the joint stable. A group of muscles (rotator cuff) cover the joint capsule and attach your upper arm to your shoulder blade and your trunk.

See Shoulder Structure, Function for more information about shoulder anatomy.

Causes for Shoulder Joint Replacement

Shoulder replacement is used when there is severe destruction of the humeral head and glenoid surface from osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteonecrosis, or trauma.

The most common cause for shoulder joint replacement is osteoarthritis or degeneration of the joint. Though osteoarthritis is more common in the hip and knee joints, because these are weight-bearing joints, it can also affect the shoulder joint with wear and tear over time, even if without an injury to the joint. Very often the injuries, like joint dislocations, that happened many years earlier can lead to wear-and-tear osteoarthritis in later life due to normal movement of the joint causing damage to the articular cartilage and other joint tissues and ligaments.

Many doctors may suggest shoulder replacement for patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis where the shoulder becomes painful and makes it hard to use for activities of daily living like dressing and caring for oneself.

Shoulder replacement is also recommended in cases of osteonecrosis (bone death), a condition where the blood vessels do not heal after an injury and the blood supply to that area stops. Eventually the loss of blood supply to part of the bone causes the bone to die. Necrosis usually happens with a fracture of the shoulder. Even if the fracture heals, the blood vessels may not. Therefore, there is no blood supply to the humeral head. A fracture might also lead to arthritis. In some cases, the fracture is so severe the doctor may feel that the chance of necrosis is too high, he will recommend a shoulder joint replacement immediately.

Severe cases of rotator cuff tears may also need shoulder replacement.

Surgical Options for Shoulder Replacement

If your surgeon finds that surgery is needed, there are several types of shoulder replacement procedures. Replacing or reshaping the damaged or diseased joint with a prosthetic one is called arthroplasty. Depending on your age, overall health, and your specific shoulder joint problem, your surgeon may recommend:

• partial shoulder replacement
• partial shoulder resurfacing
• reverse total shoulder replacement
• total shoulder replacement

Hemiarthroplasty replaces the head of the humerus with a prosthesis. The glenoid surface is left intact. Hemiarthroplasty can be done to repair a fracture of the humeral neck when the glenoid cavity isn’t affected and is still functional. Hemiarthroplasty can also used to repair:

• certain types of cartilage damage
• damage to the joint from avascular necrosis (bone death)
• dislocated humeral fractures
• fractures that can’t be repaired because the blood supply to the humeral head has been altered and necrosis (bone death) is likely
• fractures that result from tumors
• rotator cuff tears that can’t be repaired including tears where arthritis is also present

Shoulder resurfacing replaces the head of the humerus with a metal covering, or cap. Resurfacing retains the humeral neck and more than 50% of the humeral head. The glenoid surface may also be replaced using a plastic prosthesis. Shoulder resurfacing is an option for younger patients and those with:

• deformities of the humerus
• rotator cuff tears that can’t be repaired including tears where arthritis is present
• prior surgery on the humerus using nails or screws

A major advantage of resurfacing is that it allows for future shoulder procedures and surgeries. However, resurfacing is not recommended when severe bone loss is present or if the bone is not healthy enough to support the prosthesis.

Reverse shoulder replacement prosthesis Reverse total shoulder replacement converts the humerus from its normal ball structure to a socket and the normal glenoid socket into a ball. This change allows a stable center of rotation and uses the deltoid muscle to compensate for the loss of function of the rotator cuff. To be a good candidate for this surgery, you must have a functional deltoid muscle and a lifestyle that puts a low demand on using your shoulder. Although reverse shoulder replacement is relatively new, it has been a successful treatment for patients with rotator cuff tears that can’t be repaired and arthritis is also present.

Total shoulder arthroplasty replaces both the humeral head (ball) and glenoid socket with prostheses. Total shoulder replacement is used when there is severe destruction of both the humeral head and glenoid surface from osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteonecrosis, or trauma. Approximately 7000 total shoulder replacements were performed each year in the U.S. from 1996 through 2002.

Getting Ready for Shoulder Surgery

The decision of going ahead with shoulder replacement surgery should be made together with your surgeon after you have undergone a thorough orthopedic evaluation. The surgeon will tell you the alternatives of having surgery, the benefits of having shoulder replacement surgery, and the risks involved so that you can make an informed decision. If you have any questions or concerns, you should get them cleared up before signing the informed consent form. By signing the consent form, you are saying you know why you are having the surgery and that you understand the risks, benefits and alternatives of surgery and agree to the procedure.

Risks of Shoulder Replacement

The risks of having complications vary from person to person. That’s because each persons health status is different as well as the type of shoulder replacement they will need. The most common problems after shoulder replacement include:
• Infection (most susceptible within the first two years)
• Stiffness in the shoulder – following your physical therapy routine can help prevent stiffness
• Instability in the glenohumeral joint
• Component failure or loosening requiring more surgery
• You may not get complete pain relief
• Rotator cuff tears
• Fractures in the joint
Deep vein thrombosis
• Dislocation – most likely to occur during the healing process, which is why it’s important to wear the shoulder immobilizer
• Nerve injury
• Detachment of the deltoid muscle

Pre-op Tests and Preparation

Once you are comfortable with going ahead with surgery—you feel the benefits will outweigh the risks—and want to have it done, your surgeon will schedule surgery. Depending on your age and overall health, your surgeon may have you get a thorough physical examination done by your general physician or if you have heart disease to get checked by your cardiologist. Your surgeon may also order pre-surgery tests such as:
• urinalysis
• chest x-ray
Blood tests (depending on your medical history)

These tests are to make sure that you are healthy enough to have surgery and to prevent possible complications during and after surgery.

You will need to stop taking certain medicines, like aspirin, ibuprofen, or other anti-inflammatory or arthritis medicines that you have been taking. These medications can thin the blood and cause excessive bleeding during surgery. Also, be sure to tell your surgeon about any other medicines that you take so that he can advise whether to stop taking them. Also, if you get a cold, flu, cough, or infection prior to your surgery date, let you surgeon know because your surgery may have to be postponed.

If you are a smoker, you should quit smoking at least for a few days prior to surgery, as smoking can cause complications during the surgery and slow down healing. Do not use nicotine patches or gum to stop smoking as they contain nicotine.

You may be asked to donate a unit of blood to be kept on hand in case you need blood during surgery. If you are unable to donate blood, a family member with a blood type compatible with yours can donate for you. The blood bank will help you arrange your blood donation. All donated blood is screened and typed and the blood supply today is safer than ever. About 25% of patients have a blood transfusion during shoulder replacement.

Your surgeon may also have you visit the physical therapist that will be taking care of your rehabilitation after surgery. The therapist will be able to prepare you for the surgery and get to know your physical condition before the surgery. This will make it easier for the therapist to offer the best treatment and therapy exercises for you.

Getting Your Home Ready for Your Return

Arrange your home for your return before you go for surgery. You will need some help after the surgery as you won’t be able to move your shoulder or arm. Arrange for a family member or friend to be with you all the time for at least the first week after surgery. You also need to arrange to get to and from the hospital for surgery as well as for follow-up visits after surgery, since you will not be able to drive for six weeks or longer.

You may not be allowed to take shower for a week after surgery, so you’ll need help with a sponge bath. You also want to prevent falls of any kind, especially in the shower. Putting up temporary handrails in the shower will help you step in and out.

Your arm will be in an immobilizer sling so you won’t be able to raise you arm after surgery. Go through your home and make sure that items you will need two arms to reach are placed at waist height so you can get to them.

Going for Shoulder Surgery

Usually, on the day of the surgery, you will be admitted to the hospital or surgical unit early in the morning. The night before surgery, you must not eat or drink anything after midnight. Bring anything to the hospital your surgeon has asked for including medications that you are already taking, since you will have to stay in the hospital for a few days. Take a shower and wash you hair before admission—it will be hard to wash your hair after surgery because you can’t raise your arm. Try to get to bed early and get a good night’s sleep.

Shoulder Surgery

On the day of surgery, you will be asked to arrive a couple of hours prior to surgery. If you have not already met with the anesthesiologist, the anesthesiologist will evaluate you. Usually, in total shoulder replacement surgery, regional anesthesia is used. The anesthesia is a brachial plexus nerve block, where the complete shoulder region gets numb and lasts for several hours after surgery. For some surgeries, you may have general anesthesia.

The procedure starts with a 4-6 inch incision on the front of the shoulder from the middle of your collarbone to the middle of your arm. This allows access to the shoulder joint without harming the deltoid or pectoralis muscles that are used for the shoulder’s power. The procedure involves the removal of the damaged shoulder joint and replacing it with metal and plastic implants. If the socket is unaffected or can be repaired a hemiarthroplasty may be performed—replacing only the ball of the humerus. In a total arthroplasty, socket of the scapula is also replaced. The ball is replaced by a half-moon shaped metal implant that may or may not be cemented into place; the socket is replaced with a plastic socket that is fixed into the scapula with bone cement.

When the procedure is complete tendons and ligaments are secured or repaired. Then incision is closed with either stitches or staples, covered with a bandage, and your arm immobilized with a sling. The repair requires protection from active use for at least 6 weeks. Procedures usually take about 2 hours, however, due to preoperative preparation and postoperative recovery time you can expect about 6 hours for the entire process. Patients usually spend 2 to 4 days in the hospital depending on their progress and type of surgery.

In the Recovery Room

After surgery, you will be taken to the recovery room where you are monitored until you wake up and/or the effects of the anesthesia wear off which is usually about 1-2 hours. Nerve blocks (regional anesthesia) are often used during surgery and can provide pain relief for 10-24 hours afterward.

To help prevent blood clots in the legs, you will likely be wearing compression stockings and a sequential compression device. You may have also been given anticoagulation medicine. To further prevent blood clots, you need to get up and walk around soon after surgery. Your arm will be in a sling and may affect your balance, so be careful when you first try to walk.

From recovery you will be taken to your hospital room where you will stay for at least three to four days depending on how quickly you recover. Pain medicine will be given in the form of injections into your IV or pain pump. You’ll be asked to breathe deeply and cough frequently in order to relieve any lung congestion from surgery.

Pain control is very important after surgery and a combination of regional and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) (pain pump) may be used. Controlling pain allows you to take deep breaths, get up, move around, and participate in physical therapy—all of which decreases complications from surgery. Pain pills are usually started on the first day after surgery and the pain pump is discontinued.

A special icing machine made to fit the shoulder may be used to relieve pain and swelling of the shoulder area. This is usually started in the recovery room. Your surgeon may send you home with the ice machine or have you use ice packs to control pain and swelling.

It may take several hours to regain feeling in the affected shoulder and arm. Once your regional anesthesia wears off move your fingers and make a fist off and on to help to maintain the blood flow to the area and speed healing.

If a drain was placed in your shoulder during surgery, it is usually removed the day after surgery unless there is still a lot of drainage.

If you had same-day surgery, you will be allowed to go home when the effects of anesthesia have worn off, you’re past the stage where complications are likely to occur and you’re reasonably free of pain. A nurse usually reviews going-home instructions with you, gets your prescriptions, tells you when to make a follow-up appointment with your surgeon and what to do if you have problems when you get home.

The stitches inside your shoulder (under the skin) will dissolve, stitches or clips in the skin will be removed 10-14 days after surgery. Keep the incision dry until it is well healed.

Recovery and Home Care After Shoulder Surgery

Wearing a Sling

You will be wearing a special sling that immobilizes the shoulder when you come out of surgery. The sling has a strap that goes around your waist. Your elbow should fit far back into the sling; the sling should support and cover your wrist and hand up to your knuckles. Your fingers should be exposed so you can use them. The sling provides support, decreases swelling, and increases comfort while your shoulder heals. Your surgeon will tell you how and how long to wear the sling—usually 4-6 weeks. You will be shown how to take the sling on and off so that you don’t injure your shoulder. Do not remove your sling except to dress, shower, and do your physical therapy exercises. For the first 6 weeks, all activities of daily living should be done using your “good” arm.

You must wear the sling even in bed. It’s best if you lie on the opposite side or your back. Use pillows to help you get comfortable and keep you from rolling onto your affected shoulder during the night. Do not lie on your affected side for the first 6 weeks, or until your surgeon says it’s OK. Some people find it easier to sleep in a recliner and supporting their arm with pillows.

Weight Bearing Activities While Healing From Shoulder Surgery

You will have limits on the weight-bearing activities you can do:
• do not pull objects toward your body
• do no roll your shoulder backward
• do not take your elbow behind the body
• avoid putting weight on the affected arm
• do not use the affected arm to push up from a sitting position
• do not use the affected arm to lift objects
• do not use the affected arm until your surgeon says it’s OK

You may be allowed to shower 72 hours after surgery if you cover the surgical incision and dressing with plastic wrap. If you’re not to take a shower, take a sponge bath until after the staples or sutures are removed (usually 10 to 14 days after surgery) and the incision can get wet. Don’t bathe in tub or soak in a pool or hot tub where the incision is under water for at least 1 month. Use your unaffected arm for lathering, washing, and drying. If you’re allowed to remove the sling to take a shower keep your affected arm close to your body. Avoid putting your hand or arm behind your back when dressing by undressing your affected arm last; dress your affected arm first.

Physical Therapy in the Hospital

A physical therapist will work with you in the hospital and teach you the proper way to do exercises that you will continue once you get home. Make sure you carefully follow the home exercises the physical therapist gives you. Do not overdo the exercises even if you feel like you can. Overuse of the joint while it is healing can lead to permanent problems. Do your exercises exactly as prescribed. Keep these tips in mind:

  • Avoid putting force or pressure on the affected shoulder by pushing yourself up from a chair or bed with the help of the affected arm. This pressure will cause the shoulder muscles to contract and can lead to problems with your new shoulder.
  • Avoid placing your arm in extreme positions, like behind your body, or lifting anything heavier than the weight recommended by your surgeon for at least six weeks after surgery.
  • Avoid driving for at least six weeks after surgery. Ask someone to drive for you. If you don’t have help from a family member or friend, ask the hospital to recommend an agency.

When to Call Your Surgeon

Shoulder replacement is usually a very successful operation, but like any other surgery, it can have complications. Call your surgeon immediately if you have any of the following complications once you get home:

  • Infections in the surgical site or in the shoulder can occur in patients who are already suffering from other health issues like diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic liver disease, or taking corticosteroids. If you are otherwise healthy, you should not have problems.
  • Wound healing can be a problem for people who are suffering from rheumatoid arthritis or diabetes, which weaken the immune system and people who take corticosteroids.
  • Problems with anesthesia usually happen in people who have recently had a heart attack or those who have chronic illnesses of the lungs, liver, kidney, or heart.
  • There may be instability of the joint, either due to loosening of the pieces that have been replaced or stretching of the soft tissues right after surgery.
  • The range-of-motion of the shoulder usually gets better as the days go by. However, some patients are unable to move their shoulder very much, keeping them from performing activities of daily living. Sometimes this can last for a long time after surgery. If the muscles seem tight, your surgeon can prescribe medicines to relax the adjoining muscles and loosen the tissues for easier movement of the arm and shoulder.
  • If the soft tissues are stretched too much soon after surgery, it can cause the humerus to dislocate. You can keep this from happening by not putting your arm too far behind you.
  • Thrombophlebitis (blood clots in any leg vein) can form after surgery. Clots are more common in patients who are elderly, overweight, or those who have had blood clots before. Clots can occur in patients with cancer. A blood clot can be dangerous if it blocks the blood flow back to the heart or if it gets into the lungs.
  • In very rare cases, there can be nerve injury associated with surgery. The symptoms of nerve injury are tingling, numbness, and/or difficulty in moving a muscle. These symptoms usually get better with time.
  • Dislocation of the humerus can happen during or after surgery, though it is quite unusual.

Keep 24-hour phone numbers handy. Call your surgeon’s office if you feel you are not healing as you should. Check your incision every day when you change the bandage for signs of infection and to make sure it is healing as it should. If you think you have a fever take your temperature. If you have signs of infection or other complications, call your surgeon right away.

These are warning signs of infection and other complications:

  • pain in your calf or a lot of swelling in your leg and foot
  • pain in your shoulder that is not relieved by pain medicine
  • smelly discharge coming from your incision
  • red, hot, and swollen incision
  • chills or a fever over 100.4˚F
  • chest congestion, coughing, or problems breathing while at rest
  • chest pain

If the signs tell you it’s an emergency and you cannot reach your surgeon, call 911.

Physical Therapy Program After Shoulder Replacement

Restoring movement to the shoulder and arm is a very critical factor in recovering from shoulder replacement surgery. Soon after the surgery, the surgeon or physical therapist will teach you exercises that will prevent your wrist, elbow or shoulder from becoming stiff, which will speed up your recovery. At first pain may make difficult for you to do the exercises, but slowly it will get easier each day. You will have physical therapy sessions with a physical therapist while in the hospital. The physical therapist, occupational therapist, and discharge planner will give you guidelines to help you speed up the healing process.

See Shoulder Rehab to learn more about rehab exercises for the shoulder.

Long-term Care for Your New Shoulder

The most important thing is that you keep your follow-up visits with your surgeon. It will take time for you to get back to your normal activities that you did prior to surgery or shoulder injury. Depending on the type work you do, you may be able to return to work in 8 weeks. If you have a physical job, it may be much longer. Do not drive until your surgeon says it’s OK.

The best way to a total recovery is to stay active by walking, dancing, doing yard work, and, if OK with your surgeon, playing golf or swimming. These exercises will increase your strength, flexibility, and build endurance.

The surgeon may restrict how much weight you lift and/or prohibit repetitive activities. For the first few years after surgery, your surgeon may have you take antibiotics before any invasive procedure or dental procedure, in order to prevent infection in your shoulder. How long you have to take antibiotics will depend on your general health and recovery status.

Total shoulder replacements have a life expectancy of 10-20 years depending on how active you are with your new joint. Being very active puts added demands on your new joint.

Recovery Timetable:

  • 3 months after surgery: most patients are reasonably comfortable; have motion of about half of normal, but notice they have some weakness.
  • 6 months after surgery: most patients are pain-free (although weather has some effect); they have motion and strength of about two-thirds of normal.
  • One year after surgery: about 95% of patients will be pain-free, and the remaining 5% will usually have no more than a weather ache or an occasional ache with over activity. There probably won’t be significant strength limitations depending on the condition of the rotator cuff and deltoid muscle.


  1. Lori Shambarger says:

    I really truly feel for anybody that is gone through total shoulder replacement and ended up with nerve damage the doctor hasn’t even done MRI for me. and they did my operation on November 26th. Every time I talk to my doctor about the pain and the nerve pain ,I just had my neck surgery I had it fused together on a August 31st so hes playing blame the neck doctor even though I’m not having any problems with my neck so nobody wants to take responsibility and I’m in a loss I have kids I don’t know what to do I have no use my wrist and can only put things in my fingers and hold them I can’t use them and I feel like I have a muscle tearing in my arm and nerve pain is just like lightning shooting from my shoulder clear down into my finger tips it is horrible!! I hope nobody else has an experience like this or at least they have a better doctor than I do he’ll only treated for pain for 2 weeks after surgery I wish I were known that I would have found a different doctor

  2. Patricia Denman says:

    Total shoulder replacement due to extensive fracture of dominate r arm. Emergency surgery? Performed next day. Did not know ? to ask. Not told what to expect post surgery. Due to sensitivity to salycilates unable to use pain meds. Acetomenephen became ineffective after 2 months. Lots of debilitating pain after physical therapy. 7 mo later find out recovery may take 2 yrs. Therapist makes me feel like I am unusually slow to advance physically. Adds several new exercises at a time when I feel just 1 a week or every 2 weeks would be sufficient as more puts me in so much pain I feel I lose ground for several weeks. Also just found out it is important to exercise rest of body, not just shoulder. I am 83 and very active until having fall. Will increase total activity but feel discouraged by lack of communication and patient education from medical personnel. My ortho surgeon declared me released with no more follow up at 3 mo. I almost feel like I am on my own or might as well be and probably would be better off.

  3. Cindy Schmidler says:

    It will be good to consult your care provider regarding this issue. Keeping up with physical therapy or exercises may be helpful in maintaining or improving range of motion for you.

  4. Peg Cannell says:

    I have partial necrosis of my right shoulder ball. If I do nothing will it stay the same? I can live with the pain as it is now though I have lost some range of movement.

  5. Just had shoulder replacement surgery two an a half weeks ago. Had put it off for a few years til the pain was so bad that I couldn’t stand it any longer.
    (Both shoulders were bad).
    My advice to any one going to have this done. Research Doctors. Doctors that do shoulder an elbows surgery only.
    Not just any an all orthopedic surgeons
    Get that specialty please. Your be glad you did
    I’m doing good. As you know it’s a slow process. An is depressing not being able to do things. But I don’t have that awful pain now
    Besides couldn’t do a lot of things before.
    Having difficulty getting some of my clothes off with both arms.
    The left arm will be done in a few months
    I’m 77 years young.
    This is the 4 th joint replacement that I’ve done in my body.

  6. I’m glad that you mention that you should get your home ready before your surgery so that you can be more comfortable and prepared afterward. Surgery can take a lot out of you, so it’s good to be as prepared as possible beforehand. Because it can take a toll on your body, it’s important to consult with your doctor to see if it’s the right option for you.

  7. Patsy Clark says:

    How big a problem is numbness in my right hand (onset Oct. 2017) after complete reverse right shoulder replacement on Nov. 2016 . What can I do about it?

  8. Jean Haskins. says:

    I am 85 yrs.age. I am planing a shoulder joint replacement surgery. Am i at risk for any problems with this.

  9. I had shoulder replacement 6 years ago but iam still in great pain also in the arm , physio has told me i have not got any muscel in that area and have given me exercise to do daily,my left shoulder may be the same ;problem but to frighten to have the same opperation.

  10. marty schram says:

    had total shoulder replacement jan.2017-been going religiously to pt 2xwk-now april 2017 surgeon stated my shoulder is not where it should be at this time recommends going back in to correct issue or receive a different prostheic implant???he will evaluate me in july 1017

  11. Ron luthi says:

    I have had total shoulder replacement 4 months ago all is well but no feeling in subject hand or fingers . Will that get any better

  12. Vicky Pilla says:

    I had my total reverse shoulder 4 weeks ago and I’m doing well. My question is I need a dental implant and want to know how long I have to wait for having that procedure?

  13. Crystal says:

    My doctor told me I need a shoulder replacement due to bone on bone joint due to arthritis. I am 63 years old have limited range of motion, pain and weakness.. He told me that the life of a shoulder replacement is 10 years and then there is not enough bone to redo it. So I guess I am waiting until I can’t move it and get a little older and maybe they come up with a better procedure.

  14. I had total shoulder replacement on December 29, 2015. I had a few good weeks and then one day doing physical therapy, my shoulder popped. I went in for x rays and they said my joint is fine, but ever since then I have had severe stabbing pain, and lost some of my range of motion. My surgeon says my joint is fine, but to me it feels like there is a torn muscle. It is almost 13 weeks and I still do not have good active range of motion and they want me to see a pain specialist. Do you think I should get a MRI, CT scan or ultrasound to see if there is a tear, or just get a shot to ease the pain so I can get back to work?

  15. My Dr tells me I need a total shoulder replacement. I have had both hips and a knee replaced and am especially pleased with my flexibility with my knee. If I am faithful with physical therapy what sort of movement restoration can be typically expected. I saw the surgeon several months ago and he was surprised at my good range of motion. My pain has increased since then and my range of motion is only limited by pain.

  16. I had a reverse shoulder replacement on 9/30/2015, I was doing PT & thought I was doing great until I had to have another surgery on 20 Oct. 2015 I’m 74yrs old & pretty active,though I have osteoarthritis in my back etc. I developed tendinitis in my shoulder in late Dec.2015
    I’m having trouble w/pain most of the time. How long will this last? I’ve rested it & took a pres. for 4mg prednisone. No relief, any suggestions?
    One more thing my bi-cep feels like I have a blood pressure cuff on it several times a day(it will squeeze & release) anyone else have this?

  17. Judi Vale says:

    I need a total shoulder replacement. Is it normal to have pain in your upper arm (bicep)?? Judi

  18. I had a total shoulder replacement in July. Now, 6 months later my shoulder is in pain and has a burning sensation. I am told that it is highly likely that I have an infection. I have to have a procedure done where fluid is pulled out of the area for testing. Then I will have to have the prothesis removed for several weeks as antibiotics are inserted then an other surgery to put it back in. The first surgery was difficult and I am devestated. Isn’t there another way to treat the infection? I don’t have the energy to go through 2 more surgeries. What can cause an infection?

  19. Dear madam/ sir.
    I am a 80 years old with diabetes, high blood pressure , under active thyroid, all controlled with madications.
    My surgeon wants me to get a Reverse Shoulder Replacement in three days but I have a cold for seven days, thanks to your information I will postpone the surgery for two weeks.
    Do I need this surgery? I need help with my left arm to lift my right arm, have some range motion limitation, some pain when I try to use the arm. The MRI among some other imperfection shows “Large full thickness tear of the distal supraspinatus tendon measures 4 cm medial
    to lateral cm anterior to posterior”.
    I have been active al my life, presently I do exercises for adults Yoga, Ty chee, stretching , and water exercise five days a week. I consider myself for my age , better than de average.
    Thank you for your help. Geo.

  20. I would just like t get some straight answers. I had a reverse shoulder replacement last year. Now, the doctor wants to do the other one. I am in a lot of pain and doctors in Florida are refusing to prescribe Hydrocodone now. My questions are: What will happen if I refuse the surgery? Will the pain get worse? Will I lose the use of my arm? My doctors won’t give me a definitive answer, which I understand, but can someone, who has gone through this tell me what to expect? Thanks

  21. bryan flake says:

    I was playing football with my brothers recently. He slammed me into the ground sideways and I wrenched my shoulder. My general practice doctor tells me that I need to get looked at by a specialist possibly for a surgical procedure. What are some great questions to ask?

  22. Media Partners says:

    I am so sorry to hear that. Make sure you contact your doctor and give the details and ask about physical therapy options.

  23. Would never do it again. Pain and suffering 1000 worst after shoulder replacement. Dono do it

  24. Katrina Sim says:

    Hi I had a partcial shoulder replacement 9 days ago.
    This was due to rhuematoid arthritis.
    I am 35 years old.
    I find sleeping very difficult as I can’t get comfy.
    Any ideas?
    I have my first outpatient phsyio apoinent tomorrow.
    From the hospital I can do all the phsyio exercises, except one.
    Is it normal to not being able to lift my arm up above my head?
    I can only lift it a little bit, with support from my other arm
    I can lift it to about 45•
    Will this get better?
    Worried about this.
    Please help. Thank you

  25. Media Partners says:

    Barbara Paytas

    In general, one should consider surgery when they can no longer do their activities of daily living – getting dressed, eating, etc. Sounds like you are ready to consult a surgeon and get medical advice and an opinion. Be sure to ask the surgeon to be as specific as possible about your situation and what outcome you can expect.

  26. Barbara Paytas says:

    I’ve been having trouble with my shoulders for over a year. The right one is totally bone on bone. Have gone to therapy with acupuncture, natural injections (can’t take cortisone) and exercises. Has been a big help. But after I was released I aggrevated it by pushing my handle bar, wheeled walker while on a cruise for a week. Therapy really helps but I can’t afford to keep going forever. The pain is severe. Trouble driving, moving the gearshift, pulling the covers over my body, trouble sleeping, getting dressed etc. I haven’t seen my doctor for about a year. I think I’m ready for the shoulder replacement, but I’m scared!! Does it sound like I’m ready to you?? My husband even has to cut some meats for me. I’d appreciate a response from you. I’ve liked what I’ve read so far from this site.

  27. Hello, I had a total shoulder replacement 9 weeks ago. I am visiting the physio twice weekly and doing the prescribed exercises 3 times a day. I still can’t lift my arm up more than about 45 degrees. Is that normal? I’m starting to get worried.

  28. Media Partners says:

    Do you live near a teaching hospital? They may be able to offer some help and alternatives.

  29. Hi,
    I’m 47 and the shoulder surgeon says I need a reverse replacement due to a torn rotator cuff that didn’t heal and severe arthritis. I am scared that this prosthesis will not last very long, they seem to give it about 8-10 years. I am really young to need this. I can’t get a second opinion because the dr.s say no when they find out I had a previous surgery. 1 1/2 yrs. ago I was opened up and found to have a massive infection, so they debrided it, sewed the supraspinatus and closed it, not really the surgery that was intended.
    Anyone have thoughts as to where I go or what I could do? I’m in a corner, and this appears to be the only thing to do.

  30. Thank you for your reply. Sound advice. I’m going to ring the physio today. I have two great boys, 12 + 14, and have drawn them up a job rota for the summer hols of helping with dinners and hoovering – which so far they are happy with!!! Have got the books ready and a dog that needs walking so all set. My friend who is a nurse told me of a colleague who had a similar operation who felt good, over did things and ended up having the operation re-done a year later!

  31. Media Partners says:

    Andrea, Good for you that you are having a good recovery. I can’t believe you’re not taking advantage of your husband and catching up on your reading! hahaha You should always ask your surgeon before you do anything you are unsure of or start any new activities. If your good arm is not bothering you, use it to do your regular activities of daily living. It’s probably not a good idea to lift anything really heavy or do something that would make you want to use your bad arm to “help out.” It’s important to get plenty of rest and let your body use its energy to heal instead of sweeping floors. 🙂 This is a good time to go window shopping and walking. If you go shopping, carry your handbag on your good arm. Walking is good for preventing blood clots in the legs and increases circulation. You will probably be going to physical therapy soon and those exercises will keep you busy. Ask your physical therapist what you can do.

  32. Your site has been such a help to me both before and after surgery. I am 46 and have rheumatoid arthritis resulting in the need for a full shoulder replacement. This was carried out on the 4th July 2012 by Mr Hartley at The Royal Bournemouth Hospital, Dorset. Sadly it was changed to a partial replacement as my shoulder was so weak that it started to fracture. However, i have very little pain or discomfort and would recommend the operation to anyone who might be unsure. Would just like to know whether I can do a few things around the house with my good arm without risking damage to my other arm, and if so what. My husband wants me to rest but i’m going stir crazy!!

  33. Media Partners says:

    Shirley, was this for the other shoulder or did you have to have a do-over for the prior shoulder replacement? How long did you do PT?

  34. Shirley says:

    I am just recovering from my second total shoulder surgery….in 6 months after the first surgery I was back to full function and am now 11 weeks after the second surgery….cannot say enough about physical therapy and continued proscribed exercises at home…my surgeon was a shoulder specialist which to me made a lot of good difference after noting results from friends who did not have my great recovery. Also those that avoided physical therapy because of the discomfort have never regained full use of their arm again….

  35. Media Partners says:


    You certainly seem to be a fighter with all that surgery and being “brought back.” Whether to have surgery is a question only you can answer. Is it for the shoulder of your dominant arm? Is it the shoulder of the arm where you use the cane? Have you asked your doctor if it would help to use a walker to take some of the pressure off your shoulder? Have you checked with the hospital’s social services department to see what they can do to help you while you recover? You’d be surprised what hospitals can do now. What about something like the Visiting Angels that can help you during recovery? Some hospitals have areas you can stay that is similar to assisted living while you heal. They only help you when you need it until you can get around without help. There are also injections that can make the joints more slippery, have you asked about those? It’s a hard decision, but find out as much as you can what you will need after surgery, how you will get help, whether the surgery will make your life better or worse—maybe you won’t be able to lean on that shoulder with your cane? Lots to consider. Good luck.

    We don’t offer advice, just suggestions that you may not know are out there to help you learn more about your health.

  36. Lori Hughe says:

    I am 85 yrs old and have been told I need a total shoulder replacement. When I had a knee replacement they lost me but brought me back to life.That was 2 yrs ago. Do you think I’m too old for this surgery.
    My cartilage is gone from arthritis. Would I be better off at my age to just live with it and keep up my excercises and stay on pain medication.
    I have 2 stents after a heart attack 6 yrs. ago. I’m in a dilema and just don’t know what to do. I am a widow and live alone. I have back issues and use a cane for my stability. What would be your opinion. Thank you so much.

  37. Media Partners says:


    I feel your pain. 🙂 But in reverse order. I tore the common extensor tendon in my elbow (tennis elbow) on February 20, 2012. After seeing the doctor he put me in PT. Finally he recommended surgery to repair the tendon. I got a second opinion and have been in PT now for 3 months trying to avoid surgery. My elbow is fine, no pain, some strength loss but no pain. HOWEVER, my shoulder and bicep are killing me. Like you, I come off the table when the PT touches it. Remember the song Dem Bones? Well, apparently our nearby joints are compensating for loss of movement in the injured joint. And, doing the PT also works the nearby joints which may have become weak from nonuse with the injury. It is so frustrating how long this has taken, but there is very little blood supply in the ligaments and tendons, so it takes them much longer to heal. I get along fine during the day but nighttime is horrible. I can’t wait for a good night’s sleep without pain. The other issue is the muscles in those areas are so small that it doesn’t take much PT to overwhelm them. My PT calls it “collateral damage.”

  38. I had a partial shoulder replacement done 3/5/12. The morning after my elbow was extremely sore. Now I have been in therapy for 3 mos. and the shoulder seems to be doing very well. However, the elbow is still causing a lot of trouble. When the therapist try to bend my elbow toward my head with my arm at 90 degrees from my body, I about come of the table. It has gotten a little better over the 3 mos. but it still is a problem. Does this happen with shoulder surgeries, or what might it be?

  39. Great Great article…the clearest and comprehensive I’ve seen. Ki am getting shoulder replacement Feruary of 2012… mine is because of a trauma to the shoulder 3 years ago.
    I am an ex teaching tennis professional and would love to continue to teach part time.. any tennis players out there still playing after TSR??.

  40. How long must you be off work if you have a “desk job: after shoulder replacement surgery



  41. Wendell Thompson says:

    Very informative. I only heard about a reverse replacement the other day. The individual couldn’t explain well enough for me to understand. Now I do. I am glad that I am a good candidate for a straight total replacement as my rotator cuff is in good shape. Only thing is that I was under the impression that I would be ready for tennis in 3 to 4 months (it is my non-dominant shoulder). It sounds like I am too optimistic. I am healthy and serious about rehab though and am hopeful that I can break the curve a little.

  42. Hello, I had shoulder replacement surgery the end of Feb. 2011. I have been doing well except, I can only lift my arm straight out in front of me to the shoulder high. If that makes sense. I’ll get pain or cramp in the upper arm muscle.
    I’ll see the Doc tomorrow and I think there is something very
    wrong. I go to PT and they are “so happy” but I have a job that wants me back. I work as a cashier and I cant hand thing to people like change that not good..

  43. Patricia Peterson says:

    Thank you for such a clear and easily understood description of shoulder replacement surgery, before and after. Much appreciated as I am contemplating the procedure. Wonderful site.

  44. A person necessarily assist to make severely articles I’d state. That is the first time I frequented your website page and to this point? I amazed with the analysis you made to create this particular put up incredible. Magnificent task!

  45. Will let you know what I’m going to do with the surgery and how things go afterwards. Thanks for the advise, and I will get a ton of answers before

  46. Media Partners says:


    I would have a TON of questions for my surgeon if I were you! Did you ask which—either a regular or reverse shoulder replacement—would give more stability to your shoulder? What about doing exercises before surgery to strengthen your shoulder and make recovery faster. What about a walker right after surgery to help take some of the pressure of that shoulder? That certainly is a rock and a hard place. Good luck, let us know what you decide and how you do.

  47. I’m seriously considering a complete shoulder replacement, but am really concerned cause it’s my right shoulder and I depend greatly on using my right arm to use a cane because of major back problems that were never corrected during 4 surgeries which included 1 fusion at Duke University where they did a fusion on the inside of my spine through my stomach and none of my surgeries were successful and really need to use the cane in my right hand to stay active. This I’m sure through the years lead to the early deterioration of my shoulder and now I really feel I’m stuck between that famous “Rock and a Hard Place”

  48. I’ve been receiving lidocaine injections since 2006 for a shoulder injury I received at work. The WC doctor thought it was bursitis. The pain has worsened over the years and became unbearable Sept. 2010 after lifting a 2 lb. bag of fruit at work. The WC doctor took an x-ray on Oct. 1st, 2010, the first since my 2006 injury. Now, I’m told I need a reverse shoulder replacement. I’m a widow and have concerns about being able to perform my work duties after surgery. I’m a kitchen manager in a central kitchen that requires lifting 40 lbs. on a daily basis. Do you think I’ll be able to return to normal work conditions?

  49. Media Partners says:

    Thanks for the comment. We work hard to bring information that people can use. As you go through your surgery, if you find things we’ve left out or you wish you had known, let us know. We’ll be glad to update our page. Good luck with your surgery!

  50. Thank you for an excellent background read on my upcoming surgery. By far the best I have seen! Wish I’d had something similar eight years ago when I had a mastectomy! Keep up the good work, and I have bookmarked the page for my husband and helper to read.

  51. Media Partners says:

    I’m glad it helped. We are working on an article for hemi shoulder replacement and reverse shoulder replacement. Good luck with your rehab and recovery!

  52. Had the hemi shoulder replacement surgery a month ago. My doctor is very good and did great work on my shoulder.
    Today I am looking for information related to my recovery. Knowing what is happening inside my shoulder will allow me to relate to what the physical therapists are working on, and gives me the information I was looking for to ask questions.
    Just as I was getting frustrated with all the lack of information – I finally found your website!
    Your shoulder pictures and descriptions are exactly what I wanted to find. Thank you

  53. Jim Roberto says:

    I was looking for a basic primer and, as such, this was an excellent article. Now I am looking for more information on the PRO’s and CON’s of a “regular” vs a “reverse” replacement procedure and prosthesis

  54. I had total reverse shoulder replacement 2 yrs ago and they used a brachial plaxus nerve block and I now have been experiencing nerve damage on the same side of my face. I have trouble keeping my eye open and a twitching and pulling on my face going back to as far as my ear. Also sometimes I have pain in my teeth on the same side. Could this be from the shot? It’s like I have bells palsy. Sometimes these episodes are worse than others and the area around the teeth and jaw can be very painful.

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