What conditions lead to the need for a hysterectomy?
Hysterectomy is performed based on several causes such as ovarian cancer, cancer of the uterus, ‘dropped’ or prolapsed uterus, severe pelvic infections and excessive bleeding. The most common reason responsible for this surgery being ‘uterine fibroids’.
Also known as uterine leiomyomata, these fibroids are small growths in the uterus and though these are not cancerous yet they can cause other medical problems. The indications in fibroids which result in hysterectomy are big size of the fibroid, pain or pressure, and bleeding so much so that it can cause anemia.
Pelvic Relaxation/ Endometriosis
Another important cause of hysterectomy. In this condition, the supportive muscle or tissues in a woman’s pelvic area tend to become lose. In the first degree of this condition (also known as uterine prolapse) mild relaxation may be helpful, as in this state, only about half the uterine opening (cervix) goes down into the vagina. The second and the third degree of the prolapse need to be treated with hysterectomy, as in the former the cervix along with the uterus moves into the vaginal opening and in the latter it moves down past the vaginal opening. At these stages the pain becomes so severe that no other treatment seems to help.
Cystocele, rectocele, or urethrocele- loosening vaginal wall weaknesses can lead to involuntary passing of urine and heaviness in the pelvic region. Laughing, sneezing or coughing can increase this discomfort. In fact, pregnancy may also increase pelvic relaxation and delivering a child through caesarean section instead of vaginal birth does not in any way decrease the chances of this relaxation.
The next factor responsible for the surgery of hysterectomy. A condition, in which, the inner lining of the uterus, also known as endometrium, grows into the muscular lining of the uterus. This condition is also extremely painful as it is accompanied by cramps and abnormal bleeding.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
A transmitted disease in which the uterus or the fallopian tube gets infected and moves down into the pelvic cavity. This kind of infection is also very painful.
Cancer either of the uterus or endometrium may result in hysterectomy, which helps in removing the cancer completely. A very severe pre-cancer condition known as dysplasia is also treated with this surgery.