Muscles Around the Knee
- Quadriceps femoris muscles—a large muscle group on the front of the thigh.
- Vastus lateralis—part of the quadriceps femoris on the outside-front of the thigh, it extends or straightens the leg and is controlled by the femoral nerve.
- Vastus intermedius—part of the quadriceps femoris on the center-front of the thigh, it extends or straightens the leg and is controlled by the femoral nerve.
- Vastus medialis—part of the quadriceps femoris on the inside-front of the thigh, it extends or straightens the leg and is controlled by the femoral nerve. Plays a part in stabilizing the knee cap.
- Rectus femoris—on the front middle of the thigh and covers the other three quad muscles. As a extensor muscle it straightens the leg allowing us to walk, run, jump and squat. It also is a flexor muscle that bends the hip.
- Biceps femoris
- Gastrocnemius—a long superficial muscle along the back of the leg (calf). There are two heads, one along the outside (lateral) of the head and condole of the femur and the other along the medial popliteal surface of the femur. Both heads attach with the Achilles tendon to the back of the heel bone (calcaneus). The gastrocnemius flexes the ankle, the knee and allows you to stand on your tiptoes. It is controlled by the tibial nerve (S1, S2)
- Peroneus longus (fibularis longus)—runs along the outside of the leg and bends the foot outward at the ankle.
- Extensor digitorum longus
- Tibialis anterior—it dorsiflexes (upward movement of your foot that brings your toes closer to your shin) and inverts the foot, supports the arch, and is controlled by the deep peroneal nerve.